Native Americans are more likely than any other racial group to practice racial exogamy , resulting in an ever-declining proportion of indigenous blood among those who claim a Native American identity. Disenrollment has become a contentious issue in Native American reservation politics.
Intertribal mixing was common among many Native American tribes prior to European contact, as they would adopt captives taken in warfare. Individuals often had ancestry from more than one tribe, particularly after tribes lost so many members from disease in the colonial era and after. A number of tribes traditionally adopted captives into their group to replace members who had been captured or killed in battle. Such captives were from rival tribes and later were taken from raids on European settlements.
Some tribes also sheltered or adopted white traders and runaway slaves, and others owned slaves of their own. Tribes with long trading histories with Europeans show a higher rate of European admixture, reflecting years of intermarriage between Native American women and European men, often seen as advantageous to both sides.
In recent years, genetic genealogists have been able to determine the proportion of Native American ancestry carried by the African-American population. The literary and history scholar Henry Louis Gates, Jr. A greater percentage could have a smaller proportion of Indian ancestry, but their conclusions show that popular estimates of Native American admixture may have been too high. DNA testing is not sufficient to qualify a person for specific tribal membership, as it cannot distinguish among Native American tribes; however some tribes such as the Meskwaki Nation require a DNA test in order to enroll in the tribe.
Native American identity has historically been based on culture, not just biology, as many American Indian peoples adopted captives from their enemies and assimilated them into their tribes. While they occur more frequently among Native Americans, they are also found in people in other parts of the world. Not all Native Americans have been tested; especially with the large number of deaths due to disease such as smallpox , it is unlikely that Native Americans only have the genetic markers they have identified [so far], even when their maternal or paternal bloodline does not include a [known] non-Native American.
To receive tribal services, a Native American must be a certified or enrolled member of a federally recognized tribal organization. Each tribal government makes its own rules for eligibility of citizens or tribal members. Among tribes, qualification for enrollment may be based upon a required percentage of Native American "blood" or the " blood quantum " of an individual seeking recognition, or documented descent from an ancestor on the Dawes Rolls or other registers.
But, the federal government has its own standards related to who qualifies for services available to certified Native Americans.here
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For instance, federal scholarships for Native Americans require the student both to be enrolled in a federally recognized tribe and to be of at least one-quarter Native American descent equivalent to one grandparent , attested to by a Certificate of Degree of Indian Blood CDIB card issued by the federal government.
Some tribes have begun requiring genealogical DNA testing of individuals' applying for membership, but this is usually related to an individual's proving parentage or direct descent from a certified member. The Cherokee require documented direct genealogical descent from a Native American listed on the early Dawes Rolls. Tribal rules regarding recognition of members who have heritage from multiple tribes are equally diverse and complex.
Tribal membership conflicts have led to a number of legal disputes, court cases, and the formation of activist groups. One example of this are the Cherokee Freedmen. Today, they include descendants of African Americans once enslaved by the Cherokees, who were granted, by federal treaty, citizenship in the historic Cherokee Nation as freedmen after the Civil War.
The modern Cherokee Nation , in the early s, passed a law to require that all members must prove descent from a Cherokee Native American not Cherokee Freedmen listed on the Dawes Rolls, resulting in the exclusion of some individuals and families who had been active in Cherokee culture for years. Since the census of , people may identify as being of more than one race. Sociologists attribute this dramatic change to "ethnic shifting" or "ethnic shopping"; they believe that it reflects a willingness of people to question their birth identities and adopt new ethnicities which they find more compatible.
The reaction from lifelong Indians runs the gamut. It is easy to find Native Americans who denounce many of these new Indians as members of the wannabe tribe. But it is also easy to find Indians like Clem Iron Wing, an elder among the Lakota , who sees this flood of new ethnic claims as magnificent, a surge of Indians 'trying to come home.
The journalist Mary Annette Pember notes that identifying with Native American culture may be a result of a person's increased interest in genealogy , the romanticization of the lifestyle, and a family tradition of Native American ancestors in the distant past. There are different issues if a person wants to pursue enrollment as a member of a tribe.
The subjects of genuine American Indian blood, cultural connection and recognition by the community are extremely contentious issues, hotly debated throughout Indian country and beyond. The whole situation, some say, is ripe for misinterpretation, confusion and, ultimately, exploitation. The genetic history of indigenous peoples of the Americas primarily focuses on human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups and human mitochondrial DNA haplogroups.
Neither recombines , and thus Y-DNA and mtDNA change only by chance mutation at each generation with no intermixture between parents' genetic material. The genetic pattern indicates Indigenous Americans experienced two very distinctive genetic episodes; first with the initial-peopling of the Americas, and secondly with European colonization of the Americas.
Human settlement of the New World occurred in stages from the Bering sea coast line , with an initial 15, to 20,year layover on Beringia for the small founding population. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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Indigenous peoples and Indigenous peoples of the Americas. Indigenous peoples of Canada and Indigenous peoples of Mexico. Indigenous peoples of the United States except Hawaii.
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English American English Native American languages. Neighborhoods Societal statistics Reservations Tribal disenrollment Reservation poverty. History of Native Americans in the United States. Paleo-Indians and Settlement of the Americas. Archaic period in the Americas. Age of Discovery and European colonization of the Americas. Population history of indigenous peoples of the Americas. Great Law of Peace.
Native Americans in the American Civil War. Cultural assimilation of Native Americans. Indian colony and List of Indian reservations in the United States. Native American reservation politics. Native American self-determination and Native American civil rights. Tribal colleges and universities. Modern social statistics of Native Americans.
Contemporary Native American issues in the United States. Commission on Civil Rights  September Stereotypes of Native Americans. Native American mascot controversy. Native American name controversy. Native American cultures of the United States. Classification of indigenous peoples of the Americas and Indigenous languages of the Americas. Native American cuisine and Eastern Agricultural Complex.
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